Good vision allows you to see the beauty of the world around you. If a person has congenital or acquired vision pathologies, he needs professional medical care. And it is at this stage that many people have a question - which specialist should I contact?
Everything about eye health is known to an ophthalmologist. Are there any differences between an ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist? No, these are synonymous words indicating the same medical specialist. Just an ophthalmologist is an outdated name. In our clinics, signs with the inscription “Ophthalmologist” appeared back in 1981, when a reform was carried out regarding the staffing of medical institutions.
An ophthalmologist carries out medical activities in institutions of the relevant direction - dispensaries, clinics, outpatient clinics, clinics, etc. In addition, an ophthalmologist can be an employee of a research institute, scientific center or any other organization whose activities are related to the study of various ailments and pathologies of the eye.
- The specifics of the activity of an ophthalmologist
- What diseases does an ophthalmologist treat?
- What symptoms should see an ophthalmologist?
- Features of diagnostics
- Treatment Methods
- Ophthalmologist's advice
The direct duties of an ophthalmologist are to check visual acuity; visual examination of the eye for changes, pathologies and injuries; examination and assessment of the condition of the fundus; measurement of intraocular pressure. All these procedures are included in the scheduled examination by this specialist. The list of activities can be expanded, taking into account the individual situation. For example, additional examinations may be indicated for emergency treatment of patients with eye injuries. Regular visits to the ophthalmologist are necessary for patients with pathologies and eye diseases.
After the initial examination and acceptance of the patient's complaints, the doctor can establish a diagnosis and select a treatment regimen appropriate for a particular case. Severe pathologies and progressive ailments may require the use of radical therapy. Achievements of modern science significantly expand the possibilities of ophthalmologists. So, today, nano- and biotechnologies are actively used in eye surgeries, which make it possible to successfully carry out the most complex surgical interventions, including corneal transplantation.
The professional skills of an ophthalmologist allow him to identify and treat all diseases of the eyes, as well as tissues that are in close proximity to the eyes. The most common reasons for visiting this specialist are nearsightedness or farsightedness. Such visual pathologies are observed in approximately 40% of the world's population, and all (or almost all) of these people are patients of ophthalmologists.
The following ophthalmic diseases are especially common - keratoconus, astigmatism, glaucoma, cataracts. In other words, an ophthalmologist treats ailments that affect visual acuity. You should be aware that the cause of a decrease in visual acuity may be the development of a disease that is not related to the ophthalmic field - for example, diabetes mellitus, obesity, brain tumors, and more. In this case, the oculist, after examining the patient, recommends that he visit a specialist in another direction.
It is especially difficult to treat vision pathologies provoked by chronic diseases of internal organs and systems. In patients with diabetes, irreversible changes in the tissues of the eye gradually occur. It is almost impossible to stop these processes, they can only be slowed down. Similar phenomena occur in patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency. Therefore, it is important not to neglect the recommendations of the attending physician and visit the ophthalmologist regularly.
The regularity of visits to the ophthalmologist depends on the age of the patient and his medical history. When a newborn child reaches two months of age, it is recommended to show it to an ophthalmologist for a primary assessment of the condition of the eyes and the detection of pathologies. The visual function is formed in parallel with the formation of all organs and systems, so children are recommended to visit this specialist at least 2 times a year. People over 14 years of age, provided there are no vision problems, are shown to visit an ophthalmologist once a year.
There are symptoms, the manifestation of which requires an unscheduled visit to the doctor. These include:
- injury to the eye or nearby area;
- head injury;
- Pain in the eyes;
- redness of the sclera;
- constant tearing;
- sticking of eyelashes after sleep, discharge of pus from the lacrimal canals;
- blurred vision;
- sensation of the presence of a foreign body;
- painful reaction to light;
- the appearance of dots and spots before the eyes and more.
It is especially important to carefully monitor your vision for patients over 40 years of age - due to age-related changes, they have an increased risk of developing diseases such as glaucoma and cataracts.
When contacting an ophthalmologist, the patient must undergo an initial examination, which consists of two stages - an examination of the outer surface of the eye and an examination of the inner surface of the eye. The examination is preceded by a conversation between the patient and the doctor, during which the existing complaints are identified and recorded. Inspection must be carried out in a special room equipped with the necessary equipment.
Visual acuity is checked using special letter tables.
External diagnostics of the eye includes the following steps - a test of peripheral vision (the viewing angle is measured); inspection and assessment of the condition of the eyelids; examination and assessment of the condition of the eyeball and cornea; pupil reaction to light exposure. Additionally, a vision coordination test is prescribed - the patient is asked to follow a moving object with his eyes. Based on the results obtained, the doctor makes a conclusion about the health of the eyes.
Examination of the inner surface of the eye is carried out using a biomicroscope. The equipment makes it possible to examine and assess the condition of tissues, blood vessels, to identify the presence of injuries or tumors. To increase the effectiveness of the study using a microscope, medications are first instilled into the patient's eyes, which contribute to the expansion of the pupil.
To make an accurate diagnosis, the optometrist may refer the patient to tests for viral infections or parasitic diseases.
The method of therapy directly depends on the established diagnosis. For local treatment, special drops, creams and ointments are used that have a positive effect on the tissues of the eye. If it is necessary for the drug to enter the eye with blood, a tablet dosage form is selected.
The effectiveness of drug treatment can be increased by prescribing special exercises for the eyes or massage. These activities help reduce eye pressure, improve blood flow, and help get rid of eyelid diseases.
Some infectious diseases and congenital pathologies require hardware treatment. Ophthalmologists may prescribe UHF, electrophoresis, or laser irradiation to their patients. Hardware treatment is necessary to eliminate many childhood pathologies, such as strabismus. Timely applied therapy allows you to achieve a complete recovery.
Some ailments are treated by injection - depending on the characteristics of the disease, the medicinal substance can be injected directly into the fatty membrane of the eyeball, under the mucous membrane of the eye, into the eyeball or into the vitreous body. Eye injections should be performed by a qualified specialist under sterile conditions.
With a low effectiveness of drug treatment, radical therapy may be prescribed. Diseases such as glaucoma, cataracts, detachment or death of the cornea of the eye, clouding of the lens are treated in an operable way. Laser eye surgery makes operations less painful and shortens the rehabilitation period.
There are general recommendations of ophthalmologists, knowledge of which will help maintain good vision for many years. These include general medical purposes, such as an active lifestyle, proper nutrition, getting rid of bad habits, and the like. Ophthalmologists advise you to monitor your posture while working at a computer, keep a distance between the monitor and your eyes, and take mandatory breaks every 20-30 minutes when working at a computer for a long time.